Depressed (n = 110) and nondepressed (n = 104) mothers were given a set of self-report measures, including the CES-D (depression), the STAI (anxiety), the STAXI (anger), the Perinatal Anxieties and Attitudes Scale, a questionnaire on substance use and the Feelings About Pregnancy and Delivery Scale that was designed for this study and that includes scales on coping, support, intimacy, common knowledge of depression, and cultural effects on pregnancy. During the neonatal period, the depressed mothers scored higher on the depression, anger, and anxiety scales as well as the Perinatal Anxieties and Attitudes Scale. They also reported using more substances including cigarettes, caffeine, and medications (primarily antibiotics). Their scores on the Feelings About Pregnancy and Delivery Scale were lower including the coping, support, intimacy, and cultural effects scores. In addition, they reported having more stressful situations during pregnancy, being less happy when finding out they were pregnant and their significant other being less happy when finding out about the pregnancy. A regression analysis on maternal depression suggested that 28% of the variance was explained by low support scale scores, not co-sleeping with their infant and high caffeine intake.
- Substance use
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Social Psychology
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health