Objective: To examine the effect of prenatal care with and without drug rehabilitation on perinatal outcome in cocaine-using women. Methods: Cocaine- exposed pregnancies of 905 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative women were frequency matched (ratio 6:1) and compared with 150 nonusers. Cocaine subgroups consisted of 278 women who received prenatal care and drug rehabilitation ('comprehensive care'), 206 women who received prenatal care only, and 421 who received neither. Maternal and fetal complications, drug screening, and attendance were recorded. Pregnancy rates and HIV seroconversion were determined over the year following delivery. Results: The groups were similar in age, race, education and poverty level. Linear trends of increasing incidence of maternal complications were Seen across the four groups. Comparing nonusers with cocaine users, the odds ratios, with 95% confidence intervals were: 28.0 (4.2, 103.2) for both anemia and weight under 100 lb; 2.4 (1.8, 5.0) for urinary tract infections; 15 (4.6, 36.1) for syphilis; and 11.2 (4.0, 35.8) for other sexually transmitted diseases. Perinatal outcome measures were similar for nonusers and 'comprehensive care' groups but significantly worse for the other two groups. Four maternal deaths and two myocardial infarctions occurred with no care. Positive toxicology at delivery was 1.5 and 4.3 times more likely for the two groups without drug treatment, than for 'comprehensive care.' Congenital anomalies and HIV seroconversion increased in cocaine users. Repeat pregnancy was less likely and more often drug free with 'comprehensive care.' Conclusion: 'Comprehensive care' of the cocaine-using gravida increases the likelihood of carrying to term, having fewer complications, being drug free at delivery, and having fewer exposed repeat pregnancies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Obstetrics and Gynecology