Predictors of Nonadherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy among HIV-Infected South Indians in Clinical Care: Implications for Developing Adherence Interventions in Resource-Limited Settings

Kartik K. Venkatesh, A. K. Srikrishnan, Kenneth H. Mayer, N. Kumarasamy, Sudha Raminani, E. Thamburaj, Lakshmi Prasad, Elizabeth W. Triche, Suniti Solomon, Steven A. Safren

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43 Scopus citations


In light of the increasing availability of generic highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in India, further data are needed to examine variables associated with HAART nonadherence among HIV-infected Indians in clinical care. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 198 HIV-infected South Indian men and women between January and April 2008 receiving first-line non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based HAART. Nonadherence was defined as taking less than 95% of HAART doses in the last 1 month, and was examined using multivariable logistic regression models. Half of the participants reported less than 95% adherence to HAART, and 50% had been on HAART for more than 24 months. The median CD4cell count was 435cells per microliter. An increased odds of nonadherence was found for participants with current CD4cell counts greater than 500cells per microliter (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.22 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.04-4.75]; p=0.038), who were on HAART for more than 24 months (AOR: 3.07 [95% CI: 1.35-7.01]; p=0.007), who reported alcohol use (AOR: 5.68 [95%CI: 2.10-15.32]; p=0.001), who had low general health perceptions (AOR: 3.58 [95%CI: 1.20-10.66]; p=0.021), and who had high distress (AOR: 3.32 [95%CI: 1.19-9.26]; p=0.022). This study documents several modifiable risk factors for nonadherence in a clinic population of HIV-infected Indians with substantial HAART experience. Further targeted culturally specific interventions are needed that address barriers to optimal adherence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)795-803
Number of pages9
JournalAIDS patient care and STDs
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2010
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases

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