Objectives: To identify predictors of nicotine withdrawal symptoms among smokers who participated in a randomized cessation trial in a low-income country. Methods: We analyzed data from 269 smokers who participated in a randomized, placebo-controlled smoking cessation trial conducted in primary healthcare in Aleppo, Syria. All participants received behavioral counseling and were randomized to receive either 6 weeks of nicotine or placebo patch and were followed for one year. Results: Throughout the study, lower total withdrawal score was associated with greater education (p = 0.044), older age of smoking initiation (p = 0.017), lower nicotine dependence (p = 0.024), higher confidence in ability to quit (p = 0.020), lower reported depression (p < 0.001), higher adherence to patch (p = 0.026), belief of receiving nicotine patches rather than placebo (p = 0.011), and waterpipe use (p = 0.047). Conclusions: Lower nicotine dependence, greater educational attainment, higher confidence in ability to quit and waterpipe use predict lower withdrawal severity. Waterpipe smoking may serve as a barrier to smoking cessation efforts in countries where its use is highly prevalent. Further, expectancies about the effects of pharmacotherapy appear to mediate the experience of nicotine withdrawal.
- Low-income countries
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health