Predictors of HIV enacted stigma among Chilean women

Rosina Cianelli, Natalia Villlegas, Giovanna De Oliveira, Kimberly Hires, Karina Gattamorta, Lilian Ferrer, Nilda Peragallo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Aims and objectives: To investigate if socio-demographic factors, religiosity, HIV-related knowledge, Marianismo, history of having been tested for HIV, knowing someone who died of AIDS and HIV risk perception were predictive factors to HIV enacted stigma predictors among Chilean women. Background: HIV infection is the number one cause of death among women during their reproductive years. In Chile, studies with people living with HIV demonstrate the existence of HIV-related stigma. However, limited evidence is available about the underlying causes of HIV enacted stigma that results in stigmatisation and discrimination. Design: The current cross-sectional study is a secondary analysis of data collected to assess the impact of an HIV prevention intervention (Mano a Mano-Mujer) designed for Chilean women. A quasi-experimental design was used in the original study. Methods: This study was conducted in two communities in Santiago, Chile. The sample for this study consisted of 496 Chileans between ages 18-49. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression were used for the analysis. Results: Participants in the study reported high levels (77·8%) of HIV enacted stigma. Higher levels of HIV-related knowledge were associated with lower levels of HIV enacted stigma. Women with higher education had lower levels of HIV enacted stigma than women with elementary education. In addition, greater levels of marianismo (cultural belief that women should be passive, faithful, and devoted to family) were associated with higher HIV enacted stigma scores. Conclusions: The findings reflected the presence of HIV enacted stigma among Chilean women. Identifying the significant predictors of HIV enacted stigma can help the nursing community to design HIV prevention interventions that include the reduction in HIV enacted stigma. HIV evidence-based prevention interventions should incorporate contents related to stigma to contribute to prevent HIV enacted stigma at individual and community levels in accordance with the bioecological model. Relevance to clinical practice: The results of this study could serve to develop HIV prevention interventions that target the reduction in HIV enacted stigma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2392-2401
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Clinical Nursing
Issue number17-18
StatePublished - Sep 1 2015


  • HIV
  • Nursing
  • Prevention
  • Stigma
  • Women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)


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