Predictive factors of successful microdissection testicular sperm extraction

Aaron M. Bernie, Ranjith Ramasamy, Peter N. Schlegel

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


Azoospermia in men requires microsurgical reconstruction or a procedure for sperm retrieval with assisted reproduction to allow fertility. While the chance of successful retrieval of sperm in men with obstructive azoospermia approaches >90%, the chances of sperm retrieval in men with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) are not as high. Conventional procedures such as fine needle aspiration of the testis, testicular biopsy and testicular sperm extraction are successful in 20-45% of men with NOA. With microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE), the chance of successful retrieval can be up to 60%. Despite this increased success, the ability to counsel patients preoperatively on their probability of successful sperm retrieval has remained challenging. A combination of variables such as age, serum FSH and inhibin B levels, testicular size, genetic analysis, history of Klinefelter syndrome, history of cryptorchidism or varicocele and histopathology on diagnostic biopsy have provided some insight into the chance of successful sperm retrieval in men with NOA. The goal of this review was to evaluate the preoperative factors that are currently available to predict the outcome for success with micro-TESE.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5
JournalBasic and Clinical Andrology
StatePublished - Oct 2 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Non-obstructive azoospermia
  • Sperm retrieval
  • TESE
  • Testicular sperm extraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Urology


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