The signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) were found to be essential for cardioprotection. However, their role in preconditioning (PC) neuroprotection remains undefined. Previously, our studies showed that PC mediated a signaling cascade that involves activation of epsilon protein kinase C (εPKC), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathways. However, the intermediate pathway by which ERK1/2 activates COX-2 was not defined. In this study, we investigated whether the PC-induced signaling pathway requires phosphorylation of STAT isoforms for COX-2 expression. To mimic PC or lethal ischemia, mixed cortical neuron/astrocyte cell cultures were subjected to 1 and/or 4 h of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), respectively. The results indicated serine phosphorylation of STAT3 after PC or εPKC activation. Inhibition of either εPKC or ERK1/2 activation abolished PC-induced serine phosphorylation of STAT3. Additionally, inhibition of STAT3 prevented PC-induced COX-2 expression and neuroprotection against OGD. Therefore, our findings suggest that PC signaling cascade involves STAT3 activation after εPKC and ERK1/2 activation. Finally, we show that STAT3 activation mediates COX-2 expression and ischemic tolerance.
- Cerebral ischemia
- Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2)
- Ischemic tolerance
- Protein kinase C
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism