Preclinical efficacy of growth hormone-releasing hormone antagonists for androgen-dependent and castration-resistant human prostate cancer

Cale D. Fahrenholtz, Ferenc G. Rick, Maria I. Garcia, Marta Zarandi, Ren Zhi Cai, Norman L. Block, Andrew V. Schally, Kerry L. Burnstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Advanced hormone-sensitive prostate cancer responds to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT); however, therapeutic options for recurrent castration-resistant disease are limited. Because growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and GHRH receptor (GHRH-R) are regulated in an autocrine fashion in prostate cancer, inhibition of GHRH-R represents a compelling approach to treatment. We investigated the effects of the latest series of improved, highly potent GHRH antagonists-MIA-602, MIA-606, and MIA-690-on the growth of androgen-dependent as well as castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells in vitro and in vivo. GHRH-R and its splice variant, SV1, were present in 22Rv1, LNCaP, and VCaP human prostate cancer cell lines. Androgen-dependent LNCaP and VCaP cells expressed higher levels of GHRH-R protein compared with castration-resistant 22Rv1 cells; however, 22Rv1 expressed higher levels of SV1. In vitro, MIA-602 decreased cell proliferation of 22Rv1, LNCaP, and VCaP prostate cancer cell lines by 70%, 61%, and 20%, respectively (all P < 0.05), indicating direct effects of MIA-602. In vivo, MIA-602 was more effective than MIA-606 and MIA-690 and decreased 22Rv1 xenograft tumor volumes in mice by 63% after 3 wk (P < 0.05). No noticeable untoward effects or changes in body weight occurred. In vitro, the VCaP cell line was minimally inhibited by MIA-602, but in vivo, this line showed a substantial reduction in growth of xenografts in response to MIA-602, indicating both direct and systemic inhibitory effects. MIA-602 also further inhibited VCaP xenografts when combined with ADT. This study demonstrates the preclinical efficacy of the GHRH antagonist MIA-602 for treatment of both androgen-dependent and CRPC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1084-1089
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 21 2014


  • Androgen-independent
  • G protein-coupled receptor
  • Hypothalamic neurohormone
  • Neuropeptide
  • Targeted therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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