Purpose: Uveal melanoma (UM) can be classified by gene expression profiling (GEP) into Class 1 (low metastatic risk) and Class 2 (high metastatic risk), the latter being strongly associated with mutational inactivation of the tumor suppressor BAP1. Nevertheless, a small percentage of Class 1 tumors give rise to metastatic disease. The purpose of this study was to identify biomarkers of metastasis in Class 1 tumors. Experimental Design: A total of 389 consecutive patients with UM were assigned to Class 1 or Class 2 using a prospectively validated 12-gene prognostic classifier. Selected tumorswere further analyzed using global GEP and single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays. PRAME (preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma) mRNA expression was analyzed in 64 Class 1 tumors by qPCR. Results: Among Class 1 UMs, the most significant predictor of metastasis was PRAME mRNA expression (P = 0.0006). The 5-year actuarial rate of metastasis was0%for Class1PRAME-, 38% for Class1PRAME+, and 71% for Class 2 tumors. Median metastasisfree survival for Class1PRAME+ patients was 88 months, compared to 32 months for Class 2 patients. Findings were validated using three independent datasets, including one using disomy 3 to identify low-risk UM. Chromosome copy number changes associated with Class1PRAME+ tumors included gain of 1q, 6p, 8q, and 9q and loss of 6q and 11q. PRAME expression was associated with larger tumor diameter (P = 0.05) and SF3B1 mutations (P = 0.003). Conclusions: PRAME is an independent prognostic biomarker in UM, which identifies increased metastatic risk in patients with Class 1 or disomy 3 tumors. This finding may further enhance the accuracy of prognostic testing and precision medicine for UM. Clin Cancer Res; 22(5); 1234-42.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research