Potential link between post-acute ischemic stroke exposure to hypoglycemia and hemorrhagic transformation

Kyle D. Klingbeil, Sebastian Koch, Kunjan R Dave

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Hemorrhagic transformation is a severe complication of acute ischemic stroke owing to its limited treatment options and poor prognosis. In the last decade, the rates of hemorrhagic transformation incidence have been associated with blood glucose levels. In particular, hyperglycemia at the time of admission has been associated with increased rates of hemorrhagic transformation in acute ischemic stroke patients. Recent pilot clinical trials have attempted to use intensive insulin therapy during stroke treatment to reduce the severity of cerebral infarction and possibly alleviate the risk of hemorrhagic transformation. However, the results of these studies have shown no clear clinical benefit. In addition, intensive insulin therapy has increased rates of hypoglycemia which may be associated with larger infarct growth. We hypothesize that hypoglycemia, similarly to hyperglycemia, is a risk factor for worse outcomes in acute ischemic stroke by promoting hemorrhagic transformation. This review serves to call attention to patterns present within intensive insulin therapy trials and shed light into the pathophysiological effects of hypoglycemia. It is critical that efforts be directed toward the prevention of hemorrhagic transformation by optimizing insulin therapy during the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalInternational Journal of Stroke
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2017

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Hypoglycemia
Stroke
Insulin
Hyperglycemia
Therapeutics
Cerebral Infarction
Blood Glucose
Clinical Trials
Incidence
Growth

Keywords

  • acute ischemic stroke
  • cerebral hemorrhage
  • hemorrhagic transformation
  • hypoglycemic unawareness
  • iatrogenic hypoglycemia
  • Intensive insulin therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology

Cite this

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abstract = "Hemorrhagic transformation is a severe complication of acute ischemic stroke owing to its limited treatment options and poor prognosis. In the last decade, the rates of hemorrhagic transformation incidence have been associated with blood glucose levels. In particular, hyperglycemia at the time of admission has been associated with increased rates of hemorrhagic transformation in acute ischemic stroke patients. Recent pilot clinical trials have attempted to use intensive insulin therapy during stroke treatment to reduce the severity of cerebral infarction and possibly alleviate the risk of hemorrhagic transformation. However, the results of these studies have shown no clear clinical benefit. In addition, intensive insulin therapy has increased rates of hypoglycemia which may be associated with larger infarct growth. We hypothesize that hypoglycemia, similarly to hyperglycemia, is a risk factor for worse outcomes in acute ischemic stroke by promoting hemorrhagic transformation. This review serves to call attention to patterns present within intensive insulin therapy trials and shed light into the pathophysiological effects of hypoglycemia. It is critical that efforts be directed toward the prevention of hemorrhagic transformation by optimizing insulin therapy during the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.",
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AU - Koch, Sebastian

AU - Dave, Kunjan R

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N2 - Hemorrhagic transformation is a severe complication of acute ischemic stroke owing to its limited treatment options and poor prognosis. In the last decade, the rates of hemorrhagic transformation incidence have been associated with blood glucose levels. In particular, hyperglycemia at the time of admission has been associated with increased rates of hemorrhagic transformation in acute ischemic stroke patients. Recent pilot clinical trials have attempted to use intensive insulin therapy during stroke treatment to reduce the severity of cerebral infarction and possibly alleviate the risk of hemorrhagic transformation. However, the results of these studies have shown no clear clinical benefit. In addition, intensive insulin therapy has increased rates of hypoglycemia which may be associated with larger infarct growth. We hypothesize that hypoglycemia, similarly to hyperglycemia, is a risk factor for worse outcomes in acute ischemic stroke by promoting hemorrhagic transformation. This review serves to call attention to patterns present within intensive insulin therapy trials and shed light into the pathophysiological effects of hypoglycemia. It is critical that efforts be directed toward the prevention of hemorrhagic transformation by optimizing insulin therapy during the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

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KW - cerebral hemorrhage

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