Background and Aims: Patients develop breakthrough COVID-19 infection despite vaccination. The aim of this study was to identify outcomes in patients with cirrhosis who developed postvaccination COVID-19. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study among US veterans with cirrhosis and postvaccination or unvaccinated COVID-19. Patients were considered fully vaccinated if COVID-19 was diagnosed 14 days after the second dose of either the Pfizer BNT162b2, the Moderna 1273-mRNA, or the single-dose Janssen Ad.26.COV2.S vaccines and partially vaccinated if COVID-19 was diagnosed 7 days after the first dose of any vaccine but prior to full vaccination. We investigated the association of postvaccination COVID-19 with mortality. Results: We identified 3242 unvaccinated and 254 postvaccination COVID-19 patients with cirrhosis (82 after full and 172 after partial vaccination). In a multivariable analysis of a 1:2 propensity-matched cohort including vaccinated (n = 254) and unvaccinated (n = 508) participants, postvaccination COVID-19 was associated with reduced risk of death (adjusted HR [aHR], 0.21; 95% CI, 0.11–0.42). The reduction was observed after both full (aHR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.08–0.63) and partial (aHR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.07–0.54) vaccination, following the 1273-mRNA (aHR, 0.12; 95% CI 0.04–0.37) and BNT162b2 (aHR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.10–0.71) vaccines and among patients with compensated (aHR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.08–0.45) and decompensated (aHR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.08–0.90) cirrhosis. Findings were consistent in a sensitivity analysis restricted to participants who developed COVID-19 after vaccine availability. Conclusions: Though patients with cirrhosis can develop breakthrough COVID-19 after full or partial vaccination, these infections are associated with reduced mortality.
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