Portable eye-tracking as a reliable assessment of oculomotor, cognitive and reaction time function: Normative data for 18–45 year old

Aura Kullmann, Robin C. Ashmore, Alexandr Braverman, Christian Mazur, Hillary Snapp, Erin Williams, Mikhaylo Szczupak, Sara Murphy, Kathryn Marshall, James Crawford, Carey D. Balaban, Michael Hoffer, Alexander Kiderman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Eye movements measured by high precision eye-tracking technology represent a sensitive, objective, and non-invasive method to probe functional neural pathways. Oculomotor tests (e.g., saccades and smooth pursuit), tests that involve cognitive processing (e.g., antisaccade and predictive saccade), and reaction time tests have increasingly been showing utility in the diagnosis and monitoring of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in research settings. Currently, the adoption of these tests into clinical practice is hampered by a lack of a normative data set. The goal of this study was to construct a normative database to be used as a reference for comparing patients’ results. Oculomotor, cognitive, and reaction time tests were administered to male and female volunteers, aged 18–45, who were free of any neurological, vestibular disorders, or other head injuries. Tests were delivered using either a rotatory chair equipped with video-oculography goggles (VOG) or a portable virtual reality-like VOG goggle device with incorporated infrared eye-tracking technology. Statistical analysis revealed no effects of age on test metrics when participant data were divided into pediatric (i.e.,18–21 years, following FDA criteria) and adult (i.e., 21–45 years) groups. Gender (self-reported) had an effect on auditory reaction time, with males being faster than females. Pooled data were used to construct a normative database using 95% reference intervals (RI) with 90% confidence intervals on the upper and lower limits of the RI. The availability of these RIs readily allows clinicians to identify specific metrics that are deficient, therefore aiding in rapid triage, informing and monitoring treatment and/or rehabilitation protocols, and aiding in the return to duty/activity decision. This database is FDA cleared for use in clinical practice (K192186).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0260351
JournalPloS one
Volume16
Issue number11 November
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2021
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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