Poor outcomes in both infection and colonization with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales

Jessica R. Howard-Anderson, Michelle Earley, Lauren Komarow, Lilian Abbo, Deverick J. Anderson, Jason C. Gallagher, Matthew Grant, Angela Kim, Robert A. Bonomo, David Van Duin, L. Silvia Muñoz-Price, Jesse T. Jacob

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of patients with nonintestinal carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) colonization and to compare clinical outcomes of these patients to those with CRE infection. Design: A secondary analysis of Consortium on Resistance Against Carbapenems in Klebsiella and other Enterobacteriaceae 2 (CRACKLE-2), a prospective observational cohort. Setting: A total of 49 US short-term acute-care hospitals. Patients: Patients hospitalized with CRE isolated from clinical cultures, April, 30, 2016, through August 31, 2017. Methods: We described characteristics of patients in CRACKLE-2 with nonintestinal CRE colonization and assessed the impact of site of colonization on clinical outcomes. We then compared outcomes of patients defined as having nonintestinal CRE colonization to all those defined as having infection. The primary outcome was a desirability of outcome ranking (DOOR) at 30 days. Secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality and 90-day readmission. Results: Of 547 patients with nonintestinal CRE colonization, 275 (50%) were from the urinary tract, 201 (37%) were from the respiratory tract, and 71 (13%) were from a wound. Patients with urinary tract colonization were more likely to have a more desirable clinical outcome at 30 days than those with respiratory tract colonization, with a DOOR probability of better outcome of 61% (95% confidence interval [CI], 53%-71%). When compared to 255 patients with CRE infection, patients with CRE colonization had a similar overall clinical outcome, as well as 30-day mortality and 90-day readmission rates when analyzed in aggregate or by culture site. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated similar results using different definitions of infection. Conclusions: Patients with nonintestinal CRE colonization had outcomes similar to those with CRE infection. Clinical outcomes may be influenced more by culture site than classification as "colonized"or "infected."

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalInfection control and hospital epidemiology
StateAccepted/In press - 2022
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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