Efficient expression of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) and human immunodeficiency virus structural proteins requires Rex and Rev proteins, respectively. Decreased expression of Gag and Env appears to be due, in part, to intragenic RNA sequences, termed cis-acting repressive sequences (CRS), and may be mediated by binding of specific cellular factors. We demonstrated previously that two cellular proteins, p60CRS and p40CRS, interact with HTLV type 25' long terminal repeat CRS RNA and that the interaction of both proteins with CRS RNA correlates with function (A.C. Black, C. T. Ruland, J. Luo, A. Bakker, J. K. Fraser, and J. D. Rosenblatt, Virology 200:29-41, 1994). By radioimmunoprecipitation of HeLa nuclear proteins UV cross-linked to CRS RNAs with murine monoclonal antibodies, we now show that p40CRS is heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 and p60CRS is polypyrimidine tract-binding protein or hnRNP I. These immunoprecipitation results were confirmed by an immunobinding assay with hnRNP I and hnRNP AI antibodies and by cross-competition electrophoretic mobility shift experiments. In addition, we mapped a putative hnRNP At binding site in U5 RNA and demonstrated that p40CRS (hnRNP A1) binding to that site correlates with CRS function. Since both hnRNP I and hnRNP A1 have been shown to influence splicing and potentially other steps in RNA processing, the binding of both hnRNP I and hnRNP A1 to HTLV RNA regulatory elements may alter retrovirus RNA processing and may be involved in regulation by Rex.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science