Waste minimization practices, reported in the literature for major industries using or generating hazardous materials, were reviewed. Technologies are summarized briefly in this paper. The information was reorganized according to the function served by the material industrially, and the general chemical nature of the material. Ten basic functions were identified, as binding, pigmentation, reactants, reaction inhibition, catalysis, bleaching, mass deposition, mass removal, by-products, and end-products. The resulting perspective of this review is general with respect to industry, and with respect to waste phase, and considers productivity benefits along with prevention of risks associated with pollution. Similarities in waste reduction opportunities are evident between processes where hazardous materials perform similar functions, suggesting general approaches to industrial hazardous waste reduction.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis