Poland sequence

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Poland sequence refers to a congenital unilateral absence of the sternal costal portion of the pectoralis major muscle and ipsilateral upper limb anomalies. The incidence of Poland sequence is 1:30, 000 to 1:90, 000. A genetic etiology for Poland sequence has not been identified. The diagnosis can be suspected on prenatal ultrasound but must be confirmed on postnatal examination. Postnatal management consists of surgical correction and rehabilitation therapy for musculoskeletal defects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationObstetric Imaging
Subtitle of host publicationFetal Diagnosis and Care, 2nd Edition
ISBN (Electronic)9780323445481
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017


  • Musculoskeletal defects
  • Pectoralis major muscle
  • Poland sequence
  • Upper limb anomalies
  • Vascular disruptive sequence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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