Chronic pulmonary diseases are chronic diseases that affect the airways and lung parenchyma. Examples of common chronic pulmonary diseases include asthma, bronchiectasis, chronic obstructive lung disease, lung fibrosis, sarcoidosis, pulmonary hypertension, and cor pulmonale. Pulmonary infection is considered a significant cause of mortality in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading isolated bacteria from adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia, the most common pulmonary infection. Vaccination against S. pneumoniae can reduce the risk of mortality, especially from more serious infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Patients with chronic pulmonary diseases who take steroids or immunomodulating therapy (eg, methotrexate, anti-tumor necrosis factor inhibitors), or who have concurrent sickle cell disease or other hemoglobinopathies, primary immunodeficiency disorders, human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, nephrotic syndrome, and hematologic or solid malignancies should be vaccinated with both 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23-valent.
- Invasive pneumococcal disease
- Streptococcus pneumoniae
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