Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage in asymptomatic children in western Kenya

J. Teun Bousema, Louis C. Gouagna, Chris J. Drakeley, Annemiek M. Meutstege, Bernard A. Okech, Ikupa N J Akim, John C Beier, John I. Githure, Robert W. Sauerwein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

130 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Studies on Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte development and dynamics have almost exclusively focused on patients treated with antimalarial drugs, while the majority of parasite carriers in endemic areas are asymptomatic. This study identified factors that influence gametocytaemia in asymptomatic children in the absence and presence of pyrimethamine-sulphadoxine (SP) antimalarial treatment. Methods: A cohort of 526 children (6 months - 16 years) from western Kenya was screened for asexual parasites and gametocytes and followed weekly up to four weeks. Children with an estimated parasitaemia of ≥ 31,000 parasites/◆| were treated with SP according to national guidelines. Factors associated with gametocyte development and persistence were determined in untreated and SP-treated children with P. falciparum mono-infection. Results: Gametocyte prevalence at enrolment was 33.8% in children below five years of age and decreased with age. In the absence of treatment 18.6% of the children developed gametocytaemia during follow-up; in SP-treated children this proportion was 29.8%. Age, high asexual parasite density and gametocyte presence at enrolment were predictive factors for gametocytaemia. The estimated mean duration of gametocytaemia for children below five, children from five to nine and children ten years and above was 9.4, 7.8 and 4.1 days, respectively. Conclusion: This study shows that a large proportion of asymptomatic untreated children develop gametocytaemia. Gametocytaemia was particularly common in children below five years who harbor gametocytes for a longer period of time. The age-dependent duration of gametocytaemia has not been previously shown and could increase the importance of this age group for the infectious reservoir.

Original languageEnglish
Article number18
JournalMalaria Journal
Volume3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 17 2004

Fingerprint

Kenya
Plasmodium falciparum
Parasites
Antimalarials
Parasitemia
Age Groups
Guidelines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)

Cite this

Bousema, J. T., Gouagna, L. C., Drakeley, C. J., Meutstege, A. M., Okech, B. A., Akim, I. N. J., ... Sauerwein, R. W. (2004). Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage in asymptomatic children in western Kenya. Malaria Journal, 3, [18]. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-3-18

Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage in asymptomatic children in western Kenya. / Bousema, J. Teun; Gouagna, Louis C.; Drakeley, Chris J.; Meutstege, Annemiek M.; Okech, Bernard A.; Akim, Ikupa N J; Beier, John C; Githure, John I.; Sauerwein, Robert W.

In: Malaria Journal, Vol. 3, 18, 17.06.2004.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bousema, JT, Gouagna, LC, Drakeley, CJ, Meutstege, AM, Okech, BA, Akim, INJ, Beier, JC, Githure, JI & Sauerwein, RW 2004, 'Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage in asymptomatic children in western Kenya', Malaria Journal, vol. 3, 18. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-3-18
Bousema JT, Gouagna LC, Drakeley CJ, Meutstege AM, Okech BA, Akim INJ et al. Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage in asymptomatic children in western Kenya. Malaria Journal. 2004 Jun 17;3. 18. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-3-18
Bousema, J. Teun ; Gouagna, Louis C. ; Drakeley, Chris J. ; Meutstege, Annemiek M. ; Okech, Bernard A. ; Akim, Ikupa N J ; Beier, John C ; Githure, John I. ; Sauerwein, Robert W. / Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage in asymptomatic children in western Kenya. In: Malaria Journal. 2004 ; Vol. 3.
@article{a0cbaf18b3034080900ac1eca31cd91d,
title = "Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage in asymptomatic children in western Kenya",
abstract = "Background: Studies on Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte development and dynamics have almost exclusively focused on patients treated with antimalarial drugs, while the majority of parasite carriers in endemic areas are asymptomatic. This study identified factors that influence gametocytaemia in asymptomatic children in the absence and presence of pyrimethamine-sulphadoxine (SP) antimalarial treatment. Methods: A cohort of 526 children (6 months - 16 years) from western Kenya was screened for asexual parasites and gametocytes and followed weekly up to four weeks. Children with an estimated parasitaemia of ≥ 31,000 parasites/◆| were treated with SP according to national guidelines. Factors associated with gametocyte development and persistence were determined in untreated and SP-treated children with P. falciparum mono-infection. Results: Gametocyte prevalence at enrolment was 33.8{\%} in children below five years of age and decreased with age. In the absence of treatment 18.6{\%} of the children developed gametocytaemia during follow-up; in SP-treated children this proportion was 29.8{\%}. Age, high asexual parasite density and gametocyte presence at enrolment were predictive factors for gametocytaemia. The estimated mean duration of gametocytaemia for children below five, children from five to nine and children ten years and above was 9.4, 7.8 and 4.1 days, respectively. Conclusion: This study shows that a large proportion of asymptomatic untreated children develop gametocytaemia. Gametocytaemia was particularly common in children below five years who harbor gametocytes for a longer period of time. The age-dependent duration of gametocytaemia has not been previously shown and could increase the importance of this age group for the infectious reservoir.",
author = "Bousema, {J. Teun} and Gouagna, {Louis C.} and Drakeley, {Chris J.} and Meutstege, {Annemiek M.} and Okech, {Bernard A.} and Akim, {Ikupa N J} and Beier, {John C} and Githure, {John I.} and Sauerwein, {Robert W.}",
year = "2004",
month = "6",
day = "17",
doi = "10.1186/1475-2875-3-18",
language = "English",
volume = "3",
journal = "Malaria Journal",
issn = "1475-2875",
publisher = "BioMed Central",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage in asymptomatic children in western Kenya

AU - Bousema, J. Teun

AU - Gouagna, Louis C.

AU - Drakeley, Chris J.

AU - Meutstege, Annemiek M.

AU - Okech, Bernard A.

AU - Akim, Ikupa N J

AU - Beier, John C

AU - Githure, John I.

AU - Sauerwein, Robert W.

PY - 2004/6/17

Y1 - 2004/6/17

N2 - Background: Studies on Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte development and dynamics have almost exclusively focused on patients treated with antimalarial drugs, while the majority of parasite carriers in endemic areas are asymptomatic. This study identified factors that influence gametocytaemia in asymptomatic children in the absence and presence of pyrimethamine-sulphadoxine (SP) antimalarial treatment. Methods: A cohort of 526 children (6 months - 16 years) from western Kenya was screened for asexual parasites and gametocytes and followed weekly up to four weeks. Children with an estimated parasitaemia of ≥ 31,000 parasites/◆| were treated with SP according to national guidelines. Factors associated with gametocyte development and persistence were determined in untreated and SP-treated children with P. falciparum mono-infection. Results: Gametocyte prevalence at enrolment was 33.8% in children below five years of age and decreased with age. In the absence of treatment 18.6% of the children developed gametocytaemia during follow-up; in SP-treated children this proportion was 29.8%. Age, high asexual parasite density and gametocyte presence at enrolment were predictive factors for gametocytaemia. The estimated mean duration of gametocytaemia for children below five, children from five to nine and children ten years and above was 9.4, 7.8 and 4.1 days, respectively. Conclusion: This study shows that a large proportion of asymptomatic untreated children develop gametocytaemia. Gametocytaemia was particularly common in children below five years who harbor gametocytes for a longer period of time. The age-dependent duration of gametocytaemia has not been previously shown and could increase the importance of this age group for the infectious reservoir.

AB - Background: Studies on Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte development and dynamics have almost exclusively focused on patients treated with antimalarial drugs, while the majority of parasite carriers in endemic areas are asymptomatic. This study identified factors that influence gametocytaemia in asymptomatic children in the absence and presence of pyrimethamine-sulphadoxine (SP) antimalarial treatment. Methods: A cohort of 526 children (6 months - 16 years) from western Kenya was screened for asexual parasites and gametocytes and followed weekly up to four weeks. Children with an estimated parasitaemia of ≥ 31,000 parasites/◆| were treated with SP according to national guidelines. Factors associated with gametocyte development and persistence were determined in untreated and SP-treated children with P. falciparum mono-infection. Results: Gametocyte prevalence at enrolment was 33.8% in children below five years of age and decreased with age. In the absence of treatment 18.6% of the children developed gametocytaemia during follow-up; in SP-treated children this proportion was 29.8%. Age, high asexual parasite density and gametocyte presence at enrolment were predictive factors for gametocytaemia. The estimated mean duration of gametocytaemia for children below five, children from five to nine and children ten years and above was 9.4, 7.8 and 4.1 days, respectively. Conclusion: This study shows that a large proportion of asymptomatic untreated children develop gametocytaemia. Gametocytaemia was particularly common in children below five years who harbor gametocytes for a longer period of time. The age-dependent duration of gametocytaemia has not been previously shown and could increase the importance of this age group for the infectious reservoir.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=4844229494&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=4844229494&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1186/1475-2875-3-18

DO - 10.1186/1475-2875-3-18

M3 - Article

C2 - 15202944

AN - SCOPUS:4844229494

VL - 3

JO - Malaria Journal

JF - Malaria Journal

SN - 1475-2875

M1 - 18

ER -