New adjunctive treatments are needed to reduce the high recurrence rates (50%) of excised keloids. Interferon alfa injections have been shown to decrease the size of stable keloids. This study examined the effects of postoperative imiquimod 5% cream on the recurrence of 13 keloids excised surgically from 12 patients. Starting on the night of surgery, imiquimod 5% cream was applied for 8 weeks. Patients were examined at weeks 4, 8, 16, and 24 for local erythema, edema, erosions, pigment alteration, and/or recurrence of keloids. Of the 11 keloids evaluated at 24 weeks, none (0%) recurred. Incidences of hyperpigmentation were 63.6%. Two cases of mild irritation and superficial erosion cleared with temporary discontinuation of imiquimod. Both patients completed the 8 weeks of topical therapy and the final 24-week assessment. At 24 weeks, the recurrence rate of excised keloids treated with postoperative imiquimod 5% cream was lower than recurrence rates previously reported in the literature.
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