Physiological effects of dietary cadmium acclimation and waterborne cadmium challenge in rainbow trout: Respiratory, ionoregulatory, and stress parameters

M. J. Chowdhury, E. F. Pane, C. M. Wood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

70 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A suite of respiratory, acid-base, ionoregulatory, hematological, and stress parameters were examined in adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after chronic exposure to a sublethal level of dietary Cd (500 mg/kg diet) for 45 days and during a subsequent challenge to waterborne Cd (10 μg/L) for 72 h. Blood sampling via an indwelling arterial catheter revealed that dietary Cd had no major effects on blood gases, acid-base balance, and plasma ions (Ca 2+, Mg 2+, K +, Na +, and Cl -) in trout. The most notable effects were an increase in hematocrit (49%) and hemoglobin (74%), and a decrease in the plasma total ammonia (43%) and glucose (49%) of the dietary Cd-exposed fish relative to the nonexposed controls. Dietary Cd resulted in a 26-fold increase of plasma Cd level over 45 days (∼24 ng/mL). The fish exposed to dietary Cd showed acclimation with increased protection against the effects of waterborne Cd on arterial blood P aCO2 and pH, plasma ions, and stress indices. After waterborne Cd challenge, nonacclimated fish, but not Cd-acclimated fish, exhibited respiratory acidosis. Plasma Ca 2+ levels declined from the prechallenge level, but the effect was more pronounced in nonacclimated fish (44%) than in Cd-acclimated fish (14%) by 72 h. Plasma K + was elevated only in the nonacclimated fish. Similarly, waterborne Cd caused an elevation of all four traditional stress parameters (plasma total ammonia, cortisol, glucose, and lactate) only in the nonacclimated fish. Thus, chronic exposure to dietary Cd protects rainbow trout against physiological stress caused by waterborne Cd and both dietary and waterborne Cd should be considered in determining the extent of Cd toxicity to fish.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)163-173
Number of pages11
JournalComparative Biochemistry and Physiology - C Toxicology and Pharmacology
Volume139
Issue number1-3
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2004

Fingerprint

Oncorhynchus mykiss
Acclimatization
Cadmium
Fish
Fishes
Plasmas
Blood
Ammonia
Ions
Respiratory Acidosis
Glucose
Physiological Stress
Indwelling Catheters
Acid-Base Equilibrium
Trout
Catheters
Nutrition
Hematocrit
Toxicity
Hydrocortisone

Keywords

  • Acclimation
  • Acid-base
  • Cadmium
  • Chronic
  • Diet
  • Hematology
  • Plasma ions
  • Respiration
  • Stress
  • Trout

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Pharmacology

Cite this

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title = "Physiological effects of dietary cadmium acclimation and waterborne cadmium challenge in rainbow trout: Respiratory, ionoregulatory, and stress parameters",
abstract = "A suite of respiratory, acid-base, ionoregulatory, hematological, and stress parameters were examined in adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after chronic exposure to a sublethal level of dietary Cd (500 mg/kg diet) for 45 days and during a subsequent challenge to waterborne Cd (10 μg/L) for 72 h. Blood sampling via an indwelling arterial catheter revealed that dietary Cd had no major effects on blood gases, acid-base balance, and plasma ions (Ca 2+, Mg 2+, K +, Na +, and Cl -) in trout. The most notable effects were an increase in hematocrit (49{\%}) and hemoglobin (74{\%}), and a decrease in the plasma total ammonia (43{\%}) and glucose (49{\%}) of the dietary Cd-exposed fish relative to the nonexposed controls. Dietary Cd resulted in a 26-fold increase of plasma Cd level over 45 days (∼24 ng/mL). The fish exposed to dietary Cd showed acclimation with increased protection against the effects of waterborne Cd on arterial blood P aCO2 and pH, plasma ions, and stress indices. After waterborne Cd challenge, nonacclimated fish, but not Cd-acclimated fish, exhibited respiratory acidosis. Plasma Ca 2+ levels declined from the prechallenge level, but the effect was more pronounced in nonacclimated fish (44{\%}) than in Cd-acclimated fish (14{\%}) by 72 h. Plasma K + was elevated only in the nonacclimated fish. Similarly, waterborne Cd caused an elevation of all four traditional stress parameters (plasma total ammonia, cortisol, glucose, and lactate) only in the nonacclimated fish. Thus, chronic exposure to dietary Cd protects rainbow trout against physiological stress caused by waterborne Cd and both dietary and waterborne Cd should be considered in determining the extent of Cd toxicity to fish.",
keywords = "Acclimation, Acid-base, Cadmium, Chronic, Diet, Hematology, Plasma ions, Respiration, Stress, Trout",
author = "Chowdhury, {M. J.} and Pane, {E. F.} and Wood, {C. M.}",
year = "2004",
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language = "English",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Physiological effects of dietary cadmium acclimation and waterborne cadmium challenge in rainbow trout

T2 - Respiratory, ionoregulatory, and stress parameters

AU - Chowdhury, M. J.

AU - Pane, E. F.

AU - Wood, C. M.

PY - 2004/10/1

Y1 - 2004/10/1

N2 - A suite of respiratory, acid-base, ionoregulatory, hematological, and stress parameters were examined in adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after chronic exposure to a sublethal level of dietary Cd (500 mg/kg diet) for 45 days and during a subsequent challenge to waterborne Cd (10 μg/L) for 72 h. Blood sampling via an indwelling arterial catheter revealed that dietary Cd had no major effects on blood gases, acid-base balance, and plasma ions (Ca 2+, Mg 2+, K +, Na +, and Cl -) in trout. The most notable effects were an increase in hematocrit (49%) and hemoglobin (74%), and a decrease in the plasma total ammonia (43%) and glucose (49%) of the dietary Cd-exposed fish relative to the nonexposed controls. Dietary Cd resulted in a 26-fold increase of plasma Cd level over 45 days (∼24 ng/mL). The fish exposed to dietary Cd showed acclimation with increased protection against the effects of waterborne Cd on arterial blood P aCO2 and pH, plasma ions, and stress indices. After waterborne Cd challenge, nonacclimated fish, but not Cd-acclimated fish, exhibited respiratory acidosis. Plasma Ca 2+ levels declined from the prechallenge level, but the effect was more pronounced in nonacclimated fish (44%) than in Cd-acclimated fish (14%) by 72 h. Plasma K + was elevated only in the nonacclimated fish. Similarly, waterborne Cd caused an elevation of all four traditional stress parameters (plasma total ammonia, cortisol, glucose, and lactate) only in the nonacclimated fish. Thus, chronic exposure to dietary Cd protects rainbow trout against physiological stress caused by waterborne Cd and both dietary and waterborne Cd should be considered in determining the extent of Cd toxicity to fish.

AB - A suite of respiratory, acid-base, ionoregulatory, hematological, and stress parameters were examined in adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after chronic exposure to a sublethal level of dietary Cd (500 mg/kg diet) for 45 days and during a subsequent challenge to waterborne Cd (10 μg/L) for 72 h. Blood sampling via an indwelling arterial catheter revealed that dietary Cd had no major effects on blood gases, acid-base balance, and plasma ions (Ca 2+, Mg 2+, K +, Na +, and Cl -) in trout. The most notable effects were an increase in hematocrit (49%) and hemoglobin (74%), and a decrease in the plasma total ammonia (43%) and glucose (49%) of the dietary Cd-exposed fish relative to the nonexposed controls. Dietary Cd resulted in a 26-fold increase of plasma Cd level over 45 days (∼24 ng/mL). The fish exposed to dietary Cd showed acclimation with increased protection against the effects of waterborne Cd on arterial blood P aCO2 and pH, plasma ions, and stress indices. After waterborne Cd challenge, nonacclimated fish, but not Cd-acclimated fish, exhibited respiratory acidosis. Plasma Ca 2+ levels declined from the prechallenge level, but the effect was more pronounced in nonacclimated fish (44%) than in Cd-acclimated fish (14%) by 72 h. Plasma K + was elevated only in the nonacclimated fish. Similarly, waterborne Cd caused an elevation of all four traditional stress parameters (plasma total ammonia, cortisol, glucose, and lactate) only in the nonacclimated fish. Thus, chronic exposure to dietary Cd protects rainbow trout against physiological stress caused by waterborne Cd and both dietary and waterborne Cd should be considered in determining the extent of Cd toxicity to fish.

KW - Acclimation

KW - Acid-base

KW - Cadmium

KW - Chronic

KW - Diet

KW - Hematology

KW - Plasma ions

KW - Respiration

KW - Stress

KW - Trout

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U2 - 10.1016/j.cca.2004.10.006

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M3 - Article

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VL - 139

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JO - Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part - C: Toxicology and Pharmacology

JF - Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part - C: Toxicology and Pharmacology

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