Physico-Chemical Controls on Seawater

F. J. Millero

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

7 Scopus citations


The physical-chemical controls on seawater can be attributed to the effect that the composition of the major components have on the thermodynamics and kinetics of processes in the oceans. In this chapter, an earlier review on the experimental and modeling work that has been done on how the major components of seawater control rates and equilibria of processes in the oceans has been updated. The effect of major components on the physical-chemical properties of seawater, the carbonate system in the oceans and the effect of ocean acidification on speciation of metals in seawater has been emphasized.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThe Oceans and Marine Geochemistry
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages18
ISBN (Print)9780080983004
StatePublished - Nov 2013


  • Kinetic process in seawater
  • Physical-chemical controls on seawater
  • Thermodynamic equilibria in seawater

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)
  • Environmental Science(all)


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