Phase 3 trial of human islet-after-kidney transplantation in type 1 diabetes

James F. Markmann, Michael R. Rickels, Thomas L. Eggerman, Nancy D. Bridges, David E. Lafontant, Julie Qidwai, Eric Foster, William R. Clarke, Malek Kamoun, Rodolfo Alejandro, Melena D. Bellin, Kathryn Chaloner, Christine W. Czarniecki, Julia S. Goldstein, Bernhard J. Hering, Lawrence G. Hunsicker, Dixon B. Kaufman, Olle Korsgren, Christian P. Larsen, Xunrong LuoAli Naji, José Oberholzer, Andrew M. Posselt, Camillo Ricordi, Peter A. Senior, A. M.James Shapiro, Peter G. Stock, Nicole A. Turgeon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Allogeneic islet transplant offers a minimally invasive option for β cell replacement in the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D). The CIT consortium trial of purified human pancreatic islets (PHPI) in patients with T1D after kidney transplant (CIT06), a National Institutes of Health–sponsored phase 3, prospective, open-label, single-arm pivotal trial of PHPI, was conducted in 24 patients with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia while receiving intensive insulin therapy. PHPI were manufactured using standardized processes. PHPI transplantation was effective with 62.5% of patients achieving the primary endpoint of freedom from severe hypoglycemic events and HbA1c ≤ 6.5% or reduced by ≥ 1 percentage point at 1 year posttransplant. Median HbA1c declined from 8.1% before to 6.0% at 1 year and 6.3% at 2 and 3 years following transplant (P <.001 for all vs baseline), with related improvements in hypoglycemia awareness and glucose variability. The improved metabolic control was associated with better health-related and diabetes-related quality of life. The procedure was safe and kidney allograft function remained stable after 3 years. These results add to evidence establishing allogeneic islet transplant as a safe and effective treatment for patients with T1D and unstable glucose control despite intensive insulin treatment, supporting the indication for PHPI in the post–renal transplant setting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1477-1492
Number of pages16
JournalAmerican Journal of Transplantation
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2021


  • basic (laboratory) research/science
  • clinical research/practice
  • diabetes
  • diabetes: type 1
  • islet transplantation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Transplantation
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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