Diabetic retinopathy remains a major cause of worldwide preventable blindness. Measures to avoid blindness include medical management (control of blood sugar, blood pressure, and serum lipids) and ocular management (laser photocoagulation and pars plana vitrectomy). Adjunctive pharmacologic therapies (intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents) have shown early promise in the treatment of both diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Other medications under investigation include the fluocinolone acetonide implantable device, extended-release dexamethasone implant, oral ruboxistaurin, and intravitreal hyaluronidase.
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