Pharmacogenomics is an evolving research discipline within ophthalmology, but genetic data are not currently used to guide daily clinical decisions. Ophthalmic pharmacogenomic research has thus far focused on open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), two common and worldwide causes of visual loss. In the treatment of OAG and allied disorders, there are reported associations between various polymorphisms in adrenergic receptor genes and topical β-antagonists as well as between the prostaglandin receptor gene and a topical prostaglandin analogue. In the treatment of exudative AMD, there are reported associations between AMD-associated genes, such as complement factor H (CFH) and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2), and the efficacy of different treatment modalities including photodynamic therapy and intra- vitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antagonists. The steroid response associated with ophthalmic corticosteroids has been investigated, but no definite genetic associations have been reported. As additional pharmacogenomic trials are reported, the precise relationship between genotype and treatment response may become clearer.
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