Purpose To report the clinical settings, bacterial isolates, antibiotic sensitivities, and visual acuity outcomes of patients with persistently positive vitreous cultures after intravitreal antibiotics. Design Consecutive, noncomparative case series. Methods setting: Tertiary care center. patient population: Thirty-six eyes of 36 patients with exogenous endophthalmitis with the same bacterial organism identified on at least 2 consecutive vitreous cultures from 1981 to 2015. observation procedures: Vitreous cultures with intravitreal injections of antibiotics and pars plana vitrectomies with intravitreal antibiotics. main outcome measures: Bacterial isolates, antibiotic sensitivities, visual outcomes. Results Thirty-six eyes of 36 patients met the study criteria. The mean follow-up was 26.5 months. The most common clinical settings were after cataract extraction (18/36, 50%) and glaucoma surgery (11/36, 31%). The mean initial visual acuity was 2.16 ± 0.77 logMAR (Snellen equivalent ≈20/2900), and there was no statistically significant change at the final evaluation (2.08 ± 0.97 logMAR, ≈20/1900, P =.72). The most common bacteria were Staphylococcus (11/36, 31%) and Streptococcus (9/36, 25%). Gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to vancomycin (27/27, 100%); gram-negative bacteria were sensitive to amikacin (5/5, 100%). The antibiotic sensitivities were the same on repeat cultures in 34 of 36 patients (94%). The initial treatment was a vitreous culture and intravitreal injection of antibiotics in 28 of 36 patients (78%). The vision at the last follow-up was 20/200 or better in 12 patients (33%) and no light perception in 11 of 36 patients (31%). Conclusions The most commonly identified organisms were gram-positive bacteria. There was good concordance in the antibiotic sensitivities between initial and subsequent cultures. Patients with persistently vitreous culture-positive endophthalmitis had poor visual outcomes.
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