Peripheral arterial disease: A systemic disease extending beyond the affected extremity

Daniel G. Federman, Dawn M. Bravata, Robert S. Kirsner

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a manifestation of the atherosclerotic process and is associated with an increased risk of cerebrovascular disease, cardiovascular disease, and death. Clinicians should consider screening, both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients with the ankle-brachial index, a test with a high sensitivity and specificity. For those patients with PAD, atherosclerotic risk factors (such as smoking, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus) should be aggressively treated. In addition to exercise therapy, there is evidence available to support the use of aspirin, clopidogrel, lipid-lowering agents, pentoxifylline, and cilostazol.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)26-36
Number of pages11
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2004


  • Ankle-brachial Index
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Cerebrovascular disease
  • Peripheral vascular diseases
  • Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology


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