PURPOSE: We designed a prospective randomized, controlled pilot trial to investigate the effects of an enriched oral nutrition supplement on body composition and clinical outcomes following radical cystectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 61 patients were randomized to an oral nutrition supplement or a multivitamin multimineral supplement twice daily during an 8-week perioperative period. Body composition was determined by analyzing abdominal computerized tomography images at the L3 vertebra. Sarcopenia was defined as a skeletal muscle index of less than 55 cm/m in males and less than 39 cm/m in females. The primary outcome was the difference in 30-day hospital free days. Secondary outcomes included hospital length of stay, complications, readmissions and mortality. RESULTS: The oral nutrition supplement group lost less weight (-5 vs -6.5 kg, p = 0.04) compared to the multivitamin multimineral supplement group. The proportion of patients with sarcopenia did not change in the oral nutrition supplement group but increased 20% in the multivitamin multimineral supplement group (p = 0.01). Mean length of stay and 30-day hospital free days were similar in the groups. The oral nutrition supplement group had a lower rate of overall and major (Clavien grade 3 or greater) complications (48% vs 67% and 19% vs 25%, respectively) and a lower readmission rate (7% vs 17%) but the differences did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who undergo radical cystectomy after consuming an oral nutrition supplement perioperatively have a reduced prevalence of sarcopenia and may also experience fewer and less severe complications and readmissions. A larger blinded, randomized, controlled trial is necessary to determine whether oral nutrition supplement interventions can improve outcomes following radical cystectomy.
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