ABSTRACT: Antibiotic prophylaxis in the perioperative period is the standard of care for nearly all surgical procedures and routinely prescribed during solid organ transplantation (SOT). The primary goal of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis is to minimize postoperative surgical site infections (SSIs). SSIs are a significant issue in SOT. Depending on the organ transplanted, SSIs occur in 3 to 53% of patients, with the highest rates observed in small bowel/multivisceral, liver, and pancreas transplant recipients. SOT recipients are also at increased risk of developing SSIs with antimicrobial-resistant organisms. In this manuscript, we describe the epidemiology and risk factors for SSIs in SOT, and examine the available literature to guide the use of different regimens for perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for each organ. We have further addressed specific situations that are unique to each organ transplant type, such as the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in thoracic organ transplantation, as well as an approach to perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in the setting of recipient and/or donor infection prior to transplantation. We provide potential approaches to the selection, dosing, and duration of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for each of these clinical situations.
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