Perinatal brachial plexus palsy (PBPP) has been traditionally classified into three types: upper plexus palsy (Erb's) affecting the C5, C6, and ± C7 nerve roots, lower plexus palsy (Klumpke's) affecting the C8 and T1 nerve roots, and total plexus palsy. Although most cases will resolve spontaneously, the natural history of the remaining cases is influenced by contractures of uninvolved muscle groups and subluxation or dislocation of the shoulder and elbow. Microsurgical nerve repair has demonstrated to provide improved outcomes compared to conservative treatment, while advancements in secondary reconstruction have offered significant improvements in the performance of activities of daily living for older children with unresolved plexus palsy. (C) 2000 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Inc.
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