In the last two decades, percutaneous fixation techniques have evolved due to the utilization of image guidance and advanced spinal instrumentation. With this new technology, spine surgeons are able to perform percutaneous pedicle screw, iliac screw, and facet screw placement as effectively as open surgery. These techniques also allow for significantly less muscular injury and greatly diminish the approach-related morbidity compared to open procedures. This chapter will provide a comprehensive description of the percutaneous spinal fixation techniques and their surgical considerations.
- Fluoroscopic guidance
- Percutaneous lumbar facet screw
- Percutaneous lumbar iliac screw
- Percutaneous lumbar pedicle screw
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