Background: Older adults ≥75 years of age carry an increased risk of mortality after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the use of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in older adults with STEMI and shock and its influence on in-hospital mortality. Methods: We used a large publicly available all-payer inpatient health care database sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality between 1999 and 2013. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. The influence of PCI on in-hospital mortality was assessed by quintiles of propensity score (PS). Results: Of the 317,728 encounters with STEMI and shock in the United States, 111,901 (35%) were adults age ≥75 years. Of these, 53% were women and 83% were Caucasians. The median number of chronic conditions was 8 (interquartile range: 6 to 10). The diagnosis of STEMI and cardiogenic shock in older patients decreased significantly over time (proportion of older adults with STEMI and shock: 1999: 42% vs. 2013: 29%). Concomitantly, the rate of PCI utilization in older adults increased (1999: 27% vs. 2013: 56%, p < 0.001), with declining in-hospital mortality rates (1999: 64% vs. 2013: 46%; p < 0.001). Utilizing PS matching methods, PCI was associated with a lower risk of in-hospital mortality across quintiles of propensity score (Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio: 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45 to 0.51). This reduction in hospital mortality risk was seen across the 4 different U.S. census bureau regions (adjusted odds ratio: Northeast: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.47; Midwest: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.57; South: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.56; West: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.41 to 0.53). Conclusions: This large and contemporary analysis shows that utilization of PCI in older adults with STEMI and cardiogenic shock is increasing and paralleled by a substantial reduction in mortality. Although clinical judgment is critical, older adults should not be excluded from early revascularization based on age in the absence of absolute contraindications.
- ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction
- cardiogenic shock
- older adults
- percutaneous coronary intervention
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine