Ten pyeloureteral systems in 8 patients (mean age 74 years) with cytologically proved ureteral carcinoma in situ (1 combined with ureteral papillary tumors) were perfused with bacillus Calmette-Guerin via a percutaneous nephrostomy tube. In 4 patients cytology results remained negative after 1 treatment course during an observation time of 18 to 28 months. In 1 patient a papillary tumor persisted with cytology results became negative for carcinoma in situ. Two patients with bilateral disease had repeated perfusion of bacillus Calmette-Guerin until cytology results became negative and they remained negative during observation for 18 months in 1. The other patient had a multifocal recurrence of carcinoma in situ, combined with a stage T1, grade 3 urothelial cancer in the bladder after 12 months and a recurrence of carcinoma in situ in 1 ureter after 24 months. In 1 patient treatment was stopped prematurely after severe septicemia. Although our short-term results are promising, percutaneous perfusion of bacillus Calmette-Guerin for carcinoma in situ of the upper urinary tract should be considered as an investigational treatment modality until long-term results are available.
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