The bispectral index (BIS) has been developed in adults and correlates well with clinical hypnotic effects of anesthetics. We investigated whether BIS reflects clinical markers of hypnosis and demonstrates agent dose- responsiveness in infants and children. In an observational arm of this study, BIS values in children undergoing general anesthesia were observed and compared with similar data collected previously in a study of adults. In a second arm of the study, a range of steady-state end-tidal concentrations of sevoflurane was administered and corresponding BIS documented. Data were examined for differences between infants (0-2 yr) and children (2-12 yr). No difference was seen in BIS values in children before induction, during maintenance, and on emergence compared with adult values. There was no difference in BIS between infants and children at similar clinical levels of anesthesia. In children and infants, BIS was inversely proportional to the end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane. The sevoflurane concentration for a BIS = 50 (95% confidence interval) was significantly different: 1.55% (1.40- 1.70) for infants versus 1.25% (1.12-1.37) for children. Although validation with specific behavioral end points was not possible, BIS correlated with clinical indicators of anesthesia in children as it did in adults: as depth of anesthesia increased, BIS diminished. BIS correlated with sevoflurane concentration in infants and children. The concentration-response difference between infants and children was consistent with data showing that minimum alveolar concentration is higher in children less than 1 yr of age. Implications: The use of bispectral index (BIS) during general anesthesia improves the titration of anesthetics in adults. The data from this study suggest that the same equipment and method of electroencephalogram analysis may be applied to infants and children.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine