Pearls of wisdom for high-risk laser lead extractions: A focused review

Lilibeth Fermin, Ralf E. Gebhard, Ryan Azarrafiy, Roger Carrillo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Due to new indications and improved technology, the incidence of laser lead extraction (LLE) has significantly increased over the past years. While LLE has been well studied and proven to be safe and effective, only few studies are geared toward the anesthesiologist's role during high-risk LLEs. This article utilized both a focused review and authors' experience to investigate anesthetic protocols during LLEs. Through this review, we recommend best practices for the anesthesiologist including appropriate procedure location, onsite availability of a cardiac surgeon, availability of a cardiopulmonary bypass machine, and intraoperative use of echocardiography to detect and address potential complications during high-risk LLEs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)406-412
Number of pages7
JournalAnesthesia and analgesia
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


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