OBJECTIVE - There is little information regarding the pattern of metabolic deterioration before the onset of type 1 diabetes. The goal of this study was to utilize data from the Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 (DPT-1) to obtain a picture of the metabolic progression to type 1 diabetes over a period of approximately 2.5 years before its diagnosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Fifty-four DPT-1 participants (22 in the parenteral trial and 32 in the oral trial) were studied. All had oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) at 6-month intervals from approximately 30 to 6 months before diagnosis. The vast majority also had OGTTs at diagnosis. Changes in OGTT glucose and C-peptide indexes from 30 to 6 months before diagnosis were examined by calculating slopes of the indexes for each individual over that time period. Changes from 6 months before diagnosis to diagnosis were examined by paired comparisons of the OGTT metabolic indexes between the time points. RESULTS - Glucose levels increased gradually from 30 to 6 months before diagnosis in both the parenteral and oral groups (P < 0.001 for all indexes). Area under the curve (AUC) C-peptide (P < 0.05) and AUC C-peptide-to-AUC glucose ratio (P < 0.001) values decreased in the oral group; peak C-peptide-to-2-h glucose ratio values decreased in both groups (P < 0.001). In participants who also had OGTTs at diagnosis, AUC C-peptide (parenteral group, P < 0.05) and peak C-peptide (oral group, P < 0.05) values decreased from the last 6 months before diagnosis; stimulated C-peptide-to- glucose ratio values decreased in both groups (P < 0.001). Conversely, fasting C-peptide levels increased in both groups (oral group, P < 0.01). Fasting C-peptide-to-fasting glucose ratio values remained constant throughout the 30-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS - These data indicate that over a period of at least 2 years, glucose tolerance gradually deteriorates as stimulated C-peptide levels slowly decline in a substantial number of individuals who develop type 1 diabetes. However, fasting C-peptide levels are maintained, even at diagnosis.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2006|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing