Pathogenesis of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis

Joanna C. Lim, Jamie M. Golden, Henri Ford

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

55 Scopus citations

Abstract

Although necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most lethal gastrointestinal disease in the neonatal population, its pathogenesis is poorly understood. Risk factors include prematurity, bacterial colonization, and formula feeding. This review examines how mucosal injury permits opportunistic pathogens to breach the gut barrier and incite an inflammatory response that leads to sustained overproduction of mediators such as nitric oxide and its potent adduct, peroxynitrite. These mediators not only exacerbate the initial mucosal injury, but they also suppress the intestinal repair mechanisms, which further compromises the gut barrier and culminates in bacterial translocation, sepsis, and full-blown NEC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)509-518
Number of pages10
JournalPediatric Surgery International
Volume31
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 23 2015
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Necrotizing enterocolitis
  • Neonatal intensive care unit
  • Pathophysiology
  • Pediatric surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Surgery

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