Parsing Heterogeneity in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder with Individual Connectome Mapping

Dina R. Dajani, Catherine A. Burrows, Mary Beth Nebel, Stewart H. Mostofsky, Kathleen M. Gates, Lucina Q. Uddin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Traditional diagnostic systems for neurodevelopmental disorders define diagnostic categories that are heterogeneous in behavior and underlying neurobiological alterations. The goal of this study was to parse heterogeneity in a core executive function (EF), cognitive flexibility, in children with a range of abilities (N = 132; children with autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], and typically developing children) using directed functional connectivity profiles derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Brain regions activated in response to a cognitive flexibility task in adults were used to guide region-of-interest selection to estimate individual connectivity profiles in this study. We expected to find subgroups of children who differed in their network connectivity metrics and symptom measures. Unexpectedly, we did not find a stable or valid subgrouping solution, which suggests that categorical models of the neural substrates of cognitive flexibility in children may be invalid. Exploratory analyses revealed dimensional associations between network connectivity metrics and ADHD symptomatology and EF ability across the entire sample. Results shed light on the validity of conceptualizing the neural substrates of cognitive flexibility categorically in children. Ultimately, this work may provide a foundation for the development of a revised nosology focused on neurobiological substrates as an alternative to traditional symptom-based classification systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)673-691
Number of pages19
JournalBrain Connectivity
Volume9
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2019

Fingerprint

Connectome
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
Aptitude
Executive Function
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Brain

Keywords

  • cognitive flexibility
  • executive function
  • functional connectivity
  • nosology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

Parsing Heterogeneity in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder with Individual Connectome Mapping. / Dajani, Dina R.; Burrows, Catherine A.; Nebel, Mary Beth; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Gates, Kathleen M.; Uddin, Lucina Q.

In: Brain Connectivity, Vol. 9, No. 9, 11.2019, p. 673-691.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dajani, Dina R. ; Burrows, Catherine A. ; Nebel, Mary Beth ; Mostofsky, Stewart H. ; Gates, Kathleen M. ; Uddin, Lucina Q. / Parsing Heterogeneity in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder with Individual Connectome Mapping. In: Brain Connectivity. 2019 ; Vol. 9, No. 9. pp. 673-691.
@article{4d4afc7081be46ab81076b7d60e98717,
title = "Parsing Heterogeneity in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder with Individual Connectome Mapping",
abstract = "Traditional diagnostic systems for neurodevelopmental disorders define diagnostic categories that are heterogeneous in behavior and underlying neurobiological alterations. The goal of this study was to parse heterogeneity in a core executive function (EF), cognitive flexibility, in children with a range of abilities (N = 132; children with autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], and typically developing children) using directed functional connectivity profiles derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Brain regions activated in response to a cognitive flexibility task in adults were used to guide region-of-interest selection to estimate individual connectivity profiles in this study. We expected to find subgroups of children who differed in their network connectivity metrics and symptom measures. Unexpectedly, we did not find a stable or valid subgrouping solution, which suggests that categorical models of the neural substrates of cognitive flexibility in children may be invalid. Exploratory analyses revealed dimensional associations between network connectivity metrics and ADHD symptomatology and EF ability across the entire sample. Results shed light on the validity of conceptualizing the neural substrates of cognitive flexibility categorically in children. Ultimately, this work may provide a foundation for the development of a revised nosology focused on neurobiological substrates as an alternative to traditional symptom-based classification systems.",
keywords = "cognitive flexibility, executive function, functional connectivity, nosology",
author = "Dajani, {Dina R.} and Burrows, {Catherine A.} and Nebel, {Mary Beth} and Mostofsky, {Stewart H.} and Gates, {Kathleen M.} and Uddin, {Lucina Q.}",
year = "2019",
month = "11",
doi = "10.1089/brain.2019.0669",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "9",
pages = "673--691",
journal = "Brain Connectivity",
issn = "2158-0014",
publisher = "Mary Ann Liebert Inc.",
number = "9",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Parsing Heterogeneity in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder with Individual Connectome Mapping

AU - Dajani, Dina R.

AU - Burrows, Catherine A.

AU - Nebel, Mary Beth

AU - Mostofsky, Stewart H.

AU - Gates, Kathleen M.

AU - Uddin, Lucina Q.

PY - 2019/11

Y1 - 2019/11

N2 - Traditional diagnostic systems for neurodevelopmental disorders define diagnostic categories that are heterogeneous in behavior and underlying neurobiological alterations. The goal of this study was to parse heterogeneity in a core executive function (EF), cognitive flexibility, in children with a range of abilities (N = 132; children with autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], and typically developing children) using directed functional connectivity profiles derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Brain regions activated in response to a cognitive flexibility task in adults were used to guide region-of-interest selection to estimate individual connectivity profiles in this study. We expected to find subgroups of children who differed in their network connectivity metrics and symptom measures. Unexpectedly, we did not find a stable or valid subgrouping solution, which suggests that categorical models of the neural substrates of cognitive flexibility in children may be invalid. Exploratory analyses revealed dimensional associations between network connectivity metrics and ADHD symptomatology and EF ability across the entire sample. Results shed light on the validity of conceptualizing the neural substrates of cognitive flexibility categorically in children. Ultimately, this work may provide a foundation for the development of a revised nosology focused on neurobiological substrates as an alternative to traditional symptom-based classification systems.

AB - Traditional diagnostic systems for neurodevelopmental disorders define diagnostic categories that are heterogeneous in behavior and underlying neurobiological alterations. The goal of this study was to parse heterogeneity in a core executive function (EF), cognitive flexibility, in children with a range of abilities (N = 132; children with autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], and typically developing children) using directed functional connectivity profiles derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Brain regions activated in response to a cognitive flexibility task in adults were used to guide region-of-interest selection to estimate individual connectivity profiles in this study. We expected to find subgroups of children who differed in their network connectivity metrics and symptom measures. Unexpectedly, we did not find a stable or valid subgrouping solution, which suggests that categorical models of the neural substrates of cognitive flexibility in children may be invalid. Exploratory analyses revealed dimensional associations between network connectivity metrics and ADHD symptomatology and EF ability across the entire sample. Results shed light on the validity of conceptualizing the neural substrates of cognitive flexibility categorically in children. Ultimately, this work may provide a foundation for the development of a revised nosology focused on neurobiological substrates as an alternative to traditional symptom-based classification systems.

KW - cognitive flexibility

KW - executive function

KW - functional connectivity

KW - nosology

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85075094354&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85075094354&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1089/brain.2019.0669

DO - 10.1089/brain.2019.0669

M3 - Article

C2 - 31631690

AN - SCOPUS:85075094354

VL - 9

SP - 673

EP - 691

JO - Brain Connectivity

JF - Brain Connectivity

SN - 2158-0014

IS - 9

ER -