Parenting Stress, Self-Efficacy, and Involvement: Effects on Spoken Language Ability Three Years After Cochlear Implantation

Ivette Cejas, Christine M. Mitchell, David H. Barker, Christina Sarangoulis, Laurie S. Eisenberg, Alexandra Quittner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated associations among parenting stress, self-efficacy, and involvement in relation to spoken language outcomes in young children 3 years following cochlear implantation. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Six university tertiary medical centers. PATIENTS: One hundred sixty-four young children with bilateral, severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss who had 3 years of experience with a CI; children with substantial cognitive impairments were excluded from the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURESS: Family Stress Scale (FSS), Scale of Parental Involvement and Self-Efficacy (SPISE), Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS). RESULTS: Correlations were of moderate strength between FSS scores and SPISE scores (Parental Self-Efficacy, r = -0.45, p < 0.01, Parental Involvement r = -0.32, p < 0.01). As hypothesized, parents reporting higher levels of stress reported lower perceptions of self-efficacy and involvement. In addition, results showed that family stress had a direct, negative effect on spoken language (-4.43 [95% confidence interval: -6.97; -1.89]). After controlling for maternal education and activation age, parental self-efficacy mediated the negative effect between family stress and spoken language (indirect effect = -1.91 [3.45; -0.69]; proportion mediated = 0.43). No mediating effects were found for parental involvement. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the need for parenting interventions that focus on reducing stressors and increasing parents' perceptions of self-efficacy in families of children using cochlear implants. Integration of mental health screening and tailored parenting interventions in CI clinics may increase parental self-efficacy and involvement, with measurable benefits in the child's use of spoken language.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Clinical Neurology


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