This study examined relationships among selected aspects of parental involvement as they relate to the cognitive, affective, and performance outcomes of instrumental music students. Independent variables were music aptitude, parental involvement, grade level, and gender. Dependent variables were cognitive musical outcomes, performance outcomes, and affective outcomes. Subjects were instrumental music students (N = 406) from five intact band programs located in rural New York and Pennsylvania. Wind and percussion volunteers from Grades 4 through 12 participated. Data were examined using descriptive analysis, correlational analysis, and analysis of variance. Major findings included: (1) Parental involvement was related to overall performance, affective, and cognitive musical outcomes. (2) For cognitive musical outcomes, parental involvement was only related at the elementary level. (3) For musical performance outcomes, parental involvement was only related at the elementary level. (4) For affective outcomes, the strength of the parental involvement relationship increased with student age. (5) Items concerning concert attendance, providing materials, participating in parent groups, and tape-recording student performances were related to all outcome areas.
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