Parent and teacher SNAP-IV ratings of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: Psychometric properties and normative ratings from a school district sample

Regina Bussing, Melanie Fernandez, Michelle Harwood, Wei Hou, Cynthia Wilson Garvan, Sheila M. Eyberg, James M. Swanson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Scopus citations


To examine Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham-IV (SNAP-IV) psychometric properties, parent (N =1,613) and teacher (N =1,205) data were collected from a random elementary school student sample in a longitudinal attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) detection study. SNAP-IV reliability was acceptable. Factor structure indicated two ADHD factors and an oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) factor. Parent and teacher scores varied by gender and poverty status (d =.49-.56) but not age; only teacher scores varied by race (d =.25-.55). Screening and diagnostic utility was evaluated with likelihood ratios (LRs) and posttest probabilities. Parent SNAP-IV scores above 1.2 increased probability of concern (LR ≥10) and above 1.8, of ADHD diagnosis (LR ≥3). Teacher hyperactivity/impulsivity scores above 1.2 and inattention scores above 1.8 increased probabilities of concern only (LR =4.2 and ≥5, respectively). Higher teacher scores for African American children and race differences in measurement models require future study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)317-328
Number of pages12
Issue number9
StatePublished - Aug 30 2011
Externally publishedYes



  • assessment
  • attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • children
  • likelihood ratios
  • norms
  • reliability
  • validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology (medical)
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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