Pain and fear ratings: Clinical implications of age and gender differences

Troy D. Carr, Kathleen L. Lemanek, F. Daniel Armstrong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

34 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The study investigated the relationships among children's self-report of anticipatory pain and fear, physiological measures of distress, and previous medical experience in 62 outpatients during allergy skin testing. Younger (aged 3-7 years) and older (aged 8-12 years) children reported similar amounts of pain and fear. Girls reported more pain than boys. Older children and boys provided differential pain and fear ratings compared with younger children and girls. Younger children's self-report of distress was not related to any physiological measures, but older children's report of fear was significantly related to blood pressure. In girls, positive medical experience was correlated with less pain. The implications of these findings for the clinical measurement and intervention of children's distress during painful medical procedures are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)305-313
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Pain and Symptom Management
Volume15
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 1998

Fingerprint

Fear
Pain
Self Report
Hypersensitivity
Outpatients
Blood Pressure
Skin

Keywords

  • Fear
  • Invasive procedures
  • Petin
  • Physiological measurement
  • Self-report

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology
  • Nursing(all)

Cite this

Pain and fear ratings : Clinical implications of age and gender differences. / Carr, Troy D.; Lemanek, Kathleen L.; Daniel Armstrong, F.

In: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, Vol. 15, No. 5, 01.05.1998, p. 305-313.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{7bcf4341a85e49378ec5182cd58139de,
title = "Pain and fear ratings: Clinical implications of age and gender differences",
abstract = "The study investigated the relationships among children's self-report of anticipatory pain and fear, physiological measures of distress, and previous medical experience in 62 outpatients during allergy skin testing. Younger (aged 3-7 years) and older (aged 8-12 years) children reported similar amounts of pain and fear. Girls reported more pain than boys. Older children and boys provided differential pain and fear ratings compared with younger children and girls. Younger children's self-report of distress was not related to any physiological measures, but older children's report of fear was significantly related to blood pressure. In girls, positive medical experience was correlated with less pain. The implications of these findings for the clinical measurement and intervention of children's distress during painful medical procedures are discussed.",
keywords = "Fear, Invasive procedures, Petin, Physiological measurement, Self-report",
author = "Carr, {Troy D.} and Lemanek, {Kathleen L.} and {Daniel Armstrong}, F.",
year = "1998",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/S0885-3924(97)00370-9",
language = "English",
volume = "15",
pages = "305--313",
journal = "Journal of Pain and Symptom Management",
issn = "0885-3924",
publisher = "Elsevier Inc.",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Pain and fear ratings

T2 - Clinical implications of age and gender differences

AU - Carr, Troy D.

AU - Lemanek, Kathleen L.

AU - Daniel Armstrong, F.

PY - 1998/5/1

Y1 - 1998/5/1

N2 - The study investigated the relationships among children's self-report of anticipatory pain and fear, physiological measures of distress, and previous medical experience in 62 outpatients during allergy skin testing. Younger (aged 3-7 years) and older (aged 8-12 years) children reported similar amounts of pain and fear. Girls reported more pain than boys. Older children and boys provided differential pain and fear ratings compared with younger children and girls. Younger children's self-report of distress was not related to any physiological measures, but older children's report of fear was significantly related to blood pressure. In girls, positive medical experience was correlated with less pain. The implications of these findings for the clinical measurement and intervention of children's distress during painful medical procedures are discussed.

AB - The study investigated the relationships among children's self-report of anticipatory pain and fear, physiological measures of distress, and previous medical experience in 62 outpatients during allergy skin testing. Younger (aged 3-7 years) and older (aged 8-12 years) children reported similar amounts of pain and fear. Girls reported more pain than boys. Older children and boys provided differential pain and fear ratings compared with younger children and girls. Younger children's self-report of distress was not related to any physiological measures, but older children's report of fear was significantly related to blood pressure. In girls, positive medical experience was correlated with less pain. The implications of these findings for the clinical measurement and intervention of children's distress during painful medical procedures are discussed.

KW - Fear

KW - Invasive procedures

KW - Petin

KW - Physiological measurement

KW - Self-report

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0032078854&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0032078854&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/S0885-3924(97)00370-9

DO - 10.1016/S0885-3924(97)00370-9

M3 - Article

C2 - 9654836

AN - SCOPUS:0032078854

VL - 15

SP - 305

EP - 313

JO - Journal of Pain and Symptom Management

JF - Journal of Pain and Symptom Management

SN - 0885-3924

IS - 5

ER -