Pain and fear ratings: Clinical implications of age and gender differences

Troy D. Carr, Kathleen L. Lemanek, F. Daniel Armstrong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


The study investigated the relationships among children's self-report of anticipatory pain and fear, physiological measures of distress, and previous medical experience in 62 outpatients during allergy skin testing. Younger (aged 3-7 years) and older (aged 8-12 years) children reported similar amounts of pain and fear. Girls reported more pain than boys. Older children and boys provided differential pain and fear ratings compared with younger children and girls. Younger children's self-report of distress was not related to any physiological measures, but older children's report of fear was significantly related to blood pressure. In girls, positive medical experience was correlated with less pain. The implications of these findings for the clinical measurement and intervention of children's distress during painful medical procedures are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)305-313
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Pain and Symptom Management
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1998


  • Fear
  • Invasive procedures
  • Petin
  • Physiological measurement
  • Self-report

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology
  • Nursing(all)


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