(p,ρ,T) properties of seawater: Extensions to high salinities

J. Safarov, S. Berndt, F. Millero, R. Feistel, A. Heintz, E. Hassel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Measurements of (p,ρ,T) properties of seawater with absolute salinity S A=(31.684, 33.507, 37.372, 37.969, 40.164, 41.825, 44.811, 46.119, 48.600, 50.232, 52.449 and 55.529)gkg -1, temperature T=273.15-468.15K and pressures, p, up to 140MPa are reported with the reproducibility of the density measurements observed to be in the average percent deviation range Δρ/ρ=±0.01-0.03%. The measurements are made with a new set up vibration-tube densimeter which is calibrated using double-distilled water (Wagner and Pruß, 2002), methanol [(de Reuck and Craven, 1993), (Osada et al., 1999) and (Yokoyama and Uematsu, 2003)] and aqueous NaCl solutions [(Archer, 1992) and (Hilbert, 1979)]. Based on these measurements, an empirical expression for the density of seawater at high salinities has been developed as a function of salinity, pressure and temperature. The results can be used to extend the present equation of state of seawater to higher temperatures for pressure up to 140MPa.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)146-156
Number of pages11
JournalDeep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers
StatePublished - Jul 2012


  • Density
  • Equation of state
  • Salinity
  • Seawater
  • Vibration tube densimeter

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography
  • Aquatic Science


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