Organizational readiness assessment in acute and long-term care has important implications for antibiotic stewardship for asymptomatic bacteriuria

Melanie C. Goebel, Barbara W. Trautner, Yiqun Wang, John N. Van, Laura M. Dillon, Payal K. Patel, Dimitri M. Drekonja, Christopher J. Graber, Bhavarth S. Shukla, Paola Lichtenberger, Christian D. Helfrich, Anne Sales, Larissa Grigoryan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Prior to implementing an antibiotic stewardship intervention for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB), we assessed institutional barriers to change using the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment. Methods: Surveys were self-administered on paper in inpatient medicine and long-term care units at 4 Veterans Affairs facilities. Participants included providers, nurses, and pharmacists. The survey included 7 subscales: evidence (perceived strength of evidence) and six context subscales (favorability of organizational context). Responses were scored on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Results: One hundred four surveys were completed (response rate = 69.3%). Overall, the evidence subscale had the highest score; the resources subscale (mean 2.8) was significantly lower than other subscales (P < .001). Scores for budget and staffing resources were lower than scores for training and facility resources (P < .001 for both). Pharmacists had lower scores than providers for the staff culture subscale (P = .04). The site with the lowest scores for resources (mean 2.4) also had lower scores for leadership and lower pharmacist effort devoted to stewardship. Conclusions: Although healthcare professionals endorsed the evidence about nontreatment of ASB, perceived barriers to antibiotic stewardship included inadequate resources and leadership support. These findings provide targets for tailoring the stewardship intervention to maximize success.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1322-1328
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Infection Control
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2020


  • Guideline implementation
  • Health services research
  • Urinary tract infections

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Health Policy
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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