Organic Compounds of Divalent Tin and Lead

John W. Connolly, Carl Hoff

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23 Scopus citations


This chapter discusses the preparation, structure, and chemical and physical properties of isolable compounds of divalent tin and lead containing direct metal-to-carbon bonds. The local symmetry in pentahapto cyclopentadienyl complexes is D5hwhile in monohapto species it is CsIn the chapter, the gas-phase structures of stannocene and plumbocene have been determined by electron diffraction. In keeping with the greater metallic character of lead, divalent organolead compounds appear to be more associated in the solid state than corresponding divalent organotin compounds. The chapter describes the synthesis of bispentamethylcyclopentadienyltin and its crystal structure. Stannocene and plumbocene are synthesized by the salt elimination method. Cyclopentadienyllead halides are synthesized by the reaction of plumbocene with the hydrogen halide in benzene. The angular sandwich structure for stannocene is best explained by proposing sp2hybridization for the tin atom. There are many instances in which the pentamethylcyclopentadienyl metal compounds are more stable than the cyclopentadienyl compound, and the stannocene system is no exception. Mössbauer spectroscopy has been proven to be a very valuable tool in tin chemistry. The chapter lists out UV-visible spectra of a number of divalent group IV alkyls and amides. Organic compounds of divalent tin and lead form a variety of transition metal complexes. Organostannylene and plumbylene complexes of transition metals can be synthesized from both divalent and tetravalent starting materials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)123-153
Number of pages31
JournalAdvances in Organometallic Chemistry
Issue numberC
StatePublished - Jan 1 1981
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Organic Chemistry


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