Optimizing Visualization in Endoscopic Spine Surgery

Gregory W. Basil, Vignessh Kumar, Michael Y. Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Given the inherent limitations of spinal endoscopic surgery, proper lighting and visualization are of tremendous importance. These limitations include a small field of view, significant potential for disorientation, and small working cannulas. While modern endoscopic surgery has evolved in spite of these shortcomings, further progress in improving and enhancing visualization must be made to improve the safety and efficacy of endoscopic surgery. However, in order to understand potential avenues for improvement, a strong basis in the physical principles behind modern endoscopic surgery is first required. Having established these principles, novel techniques for enhanced visualization can be considered. Most compelling are technologies that leverage the concepts of light transformation, tissue manipulation, and image processing. These broad categories of enhanced visualization are well established in other surgical subspecialties and include techniques such as optical chromoendoscopy, fluorescence imaging, and 3-dimensional endoscopy. These techniques have clear applications to spinal endoscopy and represent important avenues for future research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S59-S66
JournalOperative Neurosurgery
StatePublished - Jul 1 2021


  • Endoscopic discectomy
  • Endoscopic fusion
  • Endoscopic lighting
  • Endoscopic visualization
  • Spinal endoscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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