Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been demonstrated to decrease HIV acquisition in multiple efficacy trials, but medication adherence is critical, and was suboptimal in several studies. Fifty HIV-uninfected at risk men who have sex with men (MSM) were randomized to a cognitive behavioral intervention condition or a time and session-matched comparison counseling intervention. The experimental intervention entailed four nurse-delivered initial and two booster sessions based on Life-Steps, an ART treatment adherence intervention. The comparison condition provided information and supportive counseling. The primary analyses compared adherence (Wisepill and tenofovir plasma levels) at 3 and 6 months. Fifty-eight MSM were screened to enroll 50 participants. Median age was 38.2 years old, 86% were white; 64% had completed college. Wisepill adherence was high in both groups, and not statistically different. Plasma tenofovir levels were significantly higher in the intervention group at 6 months using mean substitution analysis (i.e., computing missing variables) (p = 0.037), however, in the completer analyses (i.e., using only those completing all study visits), there were no statistically significant differences between randomization conditions. Medication adherence was high across a cognitive-behavioral (Life-Steps) and time-matched counseling intervention for PrEP adherence, with some evidence suggesting superiority of Life-Steps in this pilot RCT. Further evaluation in a fully powered efficacy trial is warranted to assess the robustness of this intervention.
- Medication adherence
- Pre-exposure antiretroviral prophylaxis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Social Psychology
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Infectious Diseases