Optimization of airplane wing structures under landing loads

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


A methodology is presented for the optimum design of aircraft wing structures subjected to landing loads. The stresses developed in the wing during landing are computed by considering the interaction between the landing gear and the flexible airplane structure. The landing gear is assumed to have nonlinear characteristics typical of conventional gears, namely, velocity squared damping, polytropic air-compression springing and exponential tire force-deflection characteristics. The coupled nonlinear differential equations of motion that arise in the landing analysis are solved by using a step-by-step numerical integration technique. In order to find the behavior of the wing structure under landing loads and also to obtain a physical insight into the nature of the optimum solution, the design of the typical section (symmetric double-wedge airfoil) is studied by using a graphical procedure. Then a more realistic wing optimization problem is formulated as a constrained nonlinear programming problem based on finite element modeling. The optimum solutions are found by using the interior penalty function method. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to find the effect of changes in design variables about the optimum point on the various response parameters on the wing structure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)849-863
Number of pages15
JournalComputers and Structures
Issue number5-6
StatePublished - 1984
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications


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