### Abstract

Current techniques for rigid body simulation run slowly on scenes with many bodies in close proximity. Each time two bodies collide or make or break a static contact, the simulator must interrupt the numerical integration of velocities and accelerations. Even for simple scenes, the number of discontinuities per frame time can rise to the millions. An efficient optimization-based animation (OBA) algorithm is presented which can simulate scenes with many convex three-dimensional bodies settling into stacks and other "crowded" arrangements. This algorithm simulates Newtonian (second order) physics and Coulomb friction, and it uses quadratic programming (QP) to calculate new positions, momenta and accelerations strictly at frame times. Contact points are synchronized at the end of each frame. The extremely small integration steps inherent to traditional simulation techniques are avoided. Non-convex bodies are simulated as unions of convex bodies. Links and joints are simulated successfully with bi-directional constraints. A hybrid of OBA and retroactive detection (RD) has been implemented as well. A review of existing work finds no other packages that can simulate similarly complex scenes in a practical amount of time.

Original language | English (US) |
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Title of host publication | Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH Conference on Computer Graphics |

Pages | 37-46 |

Number of pages | 10 |

State | Published - 2001 |

Event | Computer Graphics Annual Conference (SIGGRAPH 2001) - Los Angeles, CA, United States Duration: Aug 12 2001 → Aug 17 2001 |

### Other

Other | Computer Graphics Annual Conference (SIGGRAPH 2001) |
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Country | United States |

City | Los Angeles, CA |

Period | 8/12/01 → 8/17/01 |

### Fingerprint

### Keywords

- Animation
- Animation w/Constraints
- Physically Based Animation
- Physically Based Modeling
- Scientific Visualization
- Solid Modeling

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Computer Science(all)

### Cite this

*Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH Conference on Computer Graphics*(pp. 37-46)

**Optimization-based animation.** / Milenkovic, Victor; Schmidl, H.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding › Conference contribution

*Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH Conference on Computer Graphics.*pp. 37-46, Computer Graphics Annual Conference (SIGGRAPH 2001), Los Angeles, CA, United States, 8/12/01.

}

TY - GEN

T1 - Optimization-based animation

AU - Milenkovic, Victor

AU - Schmidl, H.

PY - 2001

Y1 - 2001

N2 - Current techniques for rigid body simulation run slowly on scenes with many bodies in close proximity. Each time two bodies collide or make or break a static contact, the simulator must interrupt the numerical integration of velocities and accelerations. Even for simple scenes, the number of discontinuities per frame time can rise to the millions. An efficient optimization-based animation (OBA) algorithm is presented which can simulate scenes with many convex three-dimensional bodies settling into stacks and other "crowded" arrangements. This algorithm simulates Newtonian (second order) physics and Coulomb friction, and it uses quadratic programming (QP) to calculate new positions, momenta and accelerations strictly at frame times. Contact points are synchronized at the end of each frame. The extremely small integration steps inherent to traditional simulation techniques are avoided. Non-convex bodies are simulated as unions of convex bodies. Links and joints are simulated successfully with bi-directional constraints. A hybrid of OBA and retroactive detection (RD) has been implemented as well. A review of existing work finds no other packages that can simulate similarly complex scenes in a practical amount of time.

AB - Current techniques for rigid body simulation run slowly on scenes with many bodies in close proximity. Each time two bodies collide or make or break a static contact, the simulator must interrupt the numerical integration of velocities and accelerations. Even for simple scenes, the number of discontinuities per frame time can rise to the millions. An efficient optimization-based animation (OBA) algorithm is presented which can simulate scenes with many convex three-dimensional bodies settling into stacks and other "crowded" arrangements. This algorithm simulates Newtonian (second order) physics and Coulomb friction, and it uses quadratic programming (QP) to calculate new positions, momenta and accelerations strictly at frame times. Contact points are synchronized at the end of each frame. The extremely small integration steps inherent to traditional simulation techniques are avoided. Non-convex bodies are simulated as unions of convex bodies. Links and joints are simulated successfully with bi-directional constraints. A hybrid of OBA and retroactive detection (RD) has been implemented as well. A review of existing work finds no other packages that can simulate similarly complex scenes in a practical amount of time.

KW - Animation

KW - Animation w/Constraints

KW - Physically Based Animation

KW - Physically Based Modeling

KW - Scientific Visualization

KW - Solid Modeling

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M3 - Conference contribution

SP - 37

EP - 46

BT - Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH Conference on Computer Graphics

ER -