Optimal timing of hemodilution for brain protection in a canine model of focal cerebral ischemia

Kiyoyuki Yanaka, Paul J. Camarata, Stephen R. Spellman, Drew E. McDonald, Roberto C. Heros

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


Background and Purpose: Hemodilution is known to ameliorate the effects of focal ischemia when used shortly after cerebral arterial occlusion; however, it remains to be proved whether hemodilution will be effective when used at more clinically relevant times, ie, with some delay between the onset of ischemia and initiation of therapy. Methods: Thirty-two dogs were selected for inclusion in this study. Cerebral infarction was induced by permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral and the azygos anterior cerebral arteries. The animals were allocated to 1 of 4 groups of eight animals each; arterial occlusion without hemodilution (group 1); hemodilution immediately after occlusion (group 2); hemodilution 3 hours after occlusion (group 3); and hemodilution 6 hours after occlusion (group 4). Isovolemic hemodilution to a hematocrit of 30% was performed. The animals were killed 6 days after induction of ischemia, and the infarct size was determined. Results: Groups 2 and 3 showed significant reduction of infarct size (P<.0001) when compared with group 1. The neurological grade of group 3 on postoperative days 4, 5, and 6 was significantly better than those of groups 1 and 4 (P<.01). Group 4 showed a significant increase in the incidence of hemorrhagic infarction when compared with groups 1 and 2 (P<.01). Conclusions: The current study indicates that hemodilution administered as much as 3 hours after ischemia is effective in reducing infarct size and improving neurological status. When administered 6 hours after ischemia, hemodilution is not helpful and may be harmful.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)906-912
Number of pages7
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1996
Externally publishedYes


  • cerebral ischemia, focal
  • dogs
  • hemodilution
  • neuroprotection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Neuroscience(all)


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