Fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) have been the gold standard for the evaluation of retinal and choroidal vasculature in the last three decades and have revolutionized the diagnosis of retinal and choroidal vascular diseases. The advantage of these imaging modalities lies in their ability to document retinal and choroidal vasculature through the dynamic assessment of contrast transit over time in the intravascular and extravascular spaces. However, disadvantages include the absence of depth resolution, blurring of details by contrast leakage, and the inability to selectively evaluate different levels of the retinal and choroidal microvasculature. In addition, these angiographic methods require intravenous dye, which may cause adverse reactions such as nausea, vomiting, and rarely, anaphylaxis. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a noninvasive imaging technique that, in contrast to dye-based angiography, is faster and depth-resolved, allowing in some cases for more precise evaluation of the vascular plexuses of the retina and choroid. The method has been demonstrated in the assessment of various vascular diseases such as venous occlusions, diabetic retinopathy, macular neovascularization, and others. Limitations of this imaging modality include a small registered field of view and the inability to visualize leakage and dye transit over time. It is also subject to a variety of artifacts, including those generated by blinking and eye movement during image acquisition. However, more than an alternative for FA and ICGA, OCTA is bringing new insights to our understanding of retinal and choroidal vascular structure and is changing fundamental paradigms in the clinical management of pathologic conditions.
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